Kratom, Akuamma and Sore-mouth Bush have been used as pain-killers in folk medicine practice. Their active principles have been discovered in modern pharmacological and chemistry studies.
The three pain killers and their extract preparations can be purchased online.
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical evergreen tree and native to Southeast Asia (Indochina, Malesia):
- Kratom leaves have psychoactive and are chewed to uplift mood and treat pain and so on health problems.
- Kratom leaves have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.
- Kratom leaves contain alkaloids 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitragynine which act on various receptors in the brain; mainly on opioid receptors.
- 7-Hydroxymitragynine is an opioid agonistic pain killer, 30- and 17-fold higher than that of mitragynine and morphine, respectively.
- Mitragynine also acts primarily on μ-opioid receptors.
- Kratom does not appear to have significant adverse effects, and appears not to cause the hypoventilation typical of other opioids.
- Side effects associated with chronic kratom use include loss of appetite and weight loss, constipation, and darkening of the skin color of the face.
- Chronic use has been associated with bowel obstruction.
- Chronic users have also reported withdrawal symptoms including irritability, runny nose and diarrhea. Withdrawal is generally short-lived and mild.
Kratom is a controlled substance in Thailand, Bhutan, Australia, Finland, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Malaysia and Myanmar. It is not regulated in US.
Akuamma (Picralima nitida) is a tree and native to West Africa.
- Akuamma seeds are used as folk medicine throughout West Africa.
- Akuamma seeds are crushed or powdered and taken orally, and are mainly used for the treatment of malaria and diarrhea, also as a painkiller.
- Akuamma has opioid analgesic activity.
- Five alkaloids (akuammidine, akuammine, akuammicine, akuammigine and pseudo-akuammigine) were isolated from the seeds of Akuamma.
- Akuammidine showed a preference for mu-opioid binding sites with Ki values of 0.6, 2.4 and 8.6 microM at mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid binding sites, respectively.
- Pseudo-akuammigine exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions.
- Their analgesic actions are mediated via interaction with opioid receptors.
Sore-mouth Bush (Psychotria poeppigiana) is a large shrub and native to tropical Americas, from Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz in Mexico to the very north of Argentina. It does not occur on the Pacific side of the American cordillera.
- Sore-mouth Bush contains Hodgkinsine, also contains trace amount of dimethyltryptamine.
- Sore-mouth Bush is widely used as a painkiller.
- Sore-mouth Bush decoction is used to treat headaches, sprains, rheumatism, muscular pains and bruises.
- Pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids identified in Sore-mouth Bush were reported having analgesic activity.
- Hodgkinsine in Psychotria plants has antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects, but has mainly been researched for its analgesic effect.
Ace AcuHerb Clinic -Acupuncture, Massage Therapy, Cupping and Moxibustion
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Also carry and prescribe herbal medicines and their combinations (capsule, instant granule, tea bag, sticky patch or cream) for migraine and pain. All our natural medicines are manufactured by GMP-compliance companies in Taiwan and USA. Each combination will be based on individual’s condition, herb synergistic effect, and traditional Chinese medicine theory, and overall diagnosis-treatment strategy.
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Warning: The information in this web site is for your information only. You should not use our information to diagnose or treat any health problems or illnesses without consulting your medical doctors.
Dr. Jeff Zhao (赵吉福), a natural product scientist, has been doing active ingredient, new drug, cosmetic and nutritional supplement research, discovery, invention and commercialization for over 30 years.